مبانی نظری Audiovisual translation، Subtitling
توضیحات: 21صفحه فارسی (word) با منابع کامل
تحقیق آماده با رفرنس دهی کامل فارسی و انگلیسی و پانویس ها مناسب برای پروپوزال و پایان نامه
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2.2. Audiovisual translation
Audiovisual translation includes all forms of translation that appears in an audio or visual context. It is a branch of translation studies concerned with the transfer of multimodal and multimedial text into another language or culture (Perez Gonzales, 2008, p.13).
2.2.1. AVT and Translation Studies
According to Gambier (2009), certain concepts in Translation Studies should be revised, extended and rethought when they are applied to AVT. The following are some of these concepts:
Subtitling is a subdivision of AVT which “ involves displaying written text, usually at the bottom of the screen, giving an account of the actors’ dialog and other linguistic information which form part of the visual image (letters, graffiti, and captions) or of the soundtrack (songs)” (Diaz cintas, 2003, p.195).
220.127.116.11. Advantages and limitations of subtitling
Empirical evidence (Bartolla, 2006) suggests that subtitles can deliver 43 per cent less text than the spoken dialogue they derive from. Given the constraints arising from the synchronous alignment between spoken sound and written subtitles that the industry requires, subtitlers are expected to prioritize the overall communicative intention of an utterance over the semantics of its individual lexical constituents. Deleting, condensing and adapting the source speech are thus some of the most common subtitling strategies deployed by professionals. Under such tight medium-related constraints, subtitling is claimed to foster cultural and linguistic standardization by ironing non-mainstream identities – and their individual speech styles – out of the translated narrative.
According to Gonzalez (2008), revoicing refers to a range of oral language transfer procedure” (p. 16) including voice-over, narration, audio description, free commentary, simultaneous interpreting and lip-synchronizad dubbing. In practice, revoicing tends to include all these procedures except for lip-synchronized dubbing, which is commonly reffered to as “dubbing”. Although these methods involve some degree of synchronization between soundtrack and the images on the screen, the need for synchronization is more important in the case of dubbing.
18.104.22.168. Simultaneous interpreting
Simultaneous interpreting is typically carried out in the context of film festivals when time and budget constraints do not allow for a more elaborate form of oral or written language transfer (Gonzalez, 2008).
22.214.171.124.2. Limitations and advantages of Lip-synchronized dubbing
Dubbing has a number of limitations, most of which are related to the difficult task of synchronization. Chaume (2004) lists three forms of synchronization in dubbing. The most obvious form of synchronization is lip synchronization or the matching of the words to the characters’ lip movements. In extreme close-ups, this needs to be quite rigorous to meet standards of quality, especially when it comes to open vowels and labial consonants. Kinetic synchrony, which matches the voices with the characters’ body movements, and isochrony,
2.4. Recent developments in AVT research
AVT has benefited from the rapid development of research interest and of institutional commitment, even though the field remains essentially European. However, if we consider the different modes of AVT, this development is rather uneven.
2.5. The genealogy of audiovisual translation
Even during the silent film era, exporting films to foreign markets involved some form of interlingual mediation. The turn of the twentieth century witnessed the incorporation of written language into the conglomerate of film semiotics in the form of intertitles. The use of these texts placed between film frames grew in parallel with the emergence of increasingly complex filmic narratives. Intertitles situated the action in a specific temporal and spatial setting, provided
2.6. Research done on audiovisual translation
Danan (1991) concluded from his studies that subtitling and dubbing represent two extremes on the translation spectrum because they originate from two opposite types of cultural systems. Subtitling corresponds to a weaker system open to foreign influences. Dubbing results from a dominant nationalistic system in which nationalistic movie rhetoric and language policies are promoted equally. Suppressing or accepting the foreign nature of imported movies is a key factor to understanding how a country perceives itself in relation to others, and how it views the importance of its own culture and language.
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